睿普教育考博英语
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2014年天津大学考博英语大纲以及样题

  天津大学博士研究生非英语专业入学考试是学校为招收博士研究生而设置的选拔性考试。教育部颁布的《硕士、博士研究生英语教学大纲》规定:“博士生入学其英语水平原则上应达到或略高于硕士生的水平”。根据这一规定,并结合历年招收博士研究生的具体情况,我校博士生入学英语考试既考查考生的语言知识,又注重测试考生的语言应用能力。

     一、考试方式

     考试采用笔试方式,时间为180分钟,满分为100分。

     二、考试内容与试卷结构

     试题共分为五个部分:听力理解、选词填空、阅读理解、英汉翻译、写作。

     1、听力理解

     该部分测试考生听力理解的技能及对英语口语信息的短期记忆能力,考查考生判断对话场景、人物关系及身份;理解说话者的意图、观点或态度;理解话语要点和含义;获取具体信息;理解中心思想等方面的能力。考生听过一段对话后,回答所提问题,录音只放一遍。该部分共10小题,考生从每题给出的4个选项中,选出最佳答案。每小题1分,共10分。

      2、选词填空

      该部分考查考生对不同语境中规范的语言要素的掌握程度,包括词汇、短语和句子结构,以及对语段特征的辨识能力,如衔接与连贯等。此题中在一篇文章中留出10个空白,要求考生从所提供的15个词汇中选出最佳答案,使填空后的文章意义通顺、连贯,结构完整。该部分共10小题,每题1分,共10分。

      3、阅读理解

A. 该部分考查考生对书面英语的理解能力,其中包括理解具体信息,掌握文章大意,以及根据语境推断未知信息。该部分共3篇文章,每篇文章5个问题,考生从4个选项中选出最佳答案。每篇文章约600词左右,每题2分,共30分。

B. 该部分为一篇文章,其中有5段空白,文章后有7~8段文字。考生根据文章内容选择合适的段落填入文章的空白处。该部分共5题,每题2分,共10分。

4. 翻译

要求考生通过阅读600词左右的英语篇章(内容偏重科技),然后将有下划线的6-8个部分翻译成汉语。主要测试考生是否能从语篇的角度正确理解英语原句的意思,并能用准确、达意的汉语书面表达出来,共20分。

5、写作

     该部分考查考生的书面表达能力。要求考生根据提示信息、所给题目或所提供的图或表格等,写出一篇说明或议论型短文;或根据提供的一篇文章写出其摘要。文章应主题明确,有逻辑性,语言规范,长度不少于200词,共20分。

天津大学博士研究生入学考试非英语专业考试大纲样题(2014

 

Part I. Listening Comprehension (10 %)

Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said.Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B),C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

1. A) He has proved to be a better reader than the woman.
     B) He has difficulty understanding the book.
     C) He cannot get access to the assigned book.
     D) He cannot finish his assignment before the deadline.
  2. A) She will drive the man to the supermarket.
     B) The man should buy a car of his own.
     C) The man needn't go shopping every week.
     D) She can pick the man up at the grocery store.
  

 

Part IV Banked Cloze (10 %)

Directions: Fill in the blanks in the following passage by selecting suitable words from the Word Bank. You may not use any of the words more than once.

You have seen a friend succeed. No doubt you feel joy at this.You love your friend,and maybe you even helped him accomplish his goal. ____1____, there is another feeling, a dark feeling, within you. You begin to wish that it was you who was enjoying success, and you begin to even dislike your friend. At first this envious feeling starts off like a tiny seed. But then, like a seed, it grows. It threatens to ____2____ you.

 

Of course you feel bad about your feelings, as they have become a(n) ____3____ to your friendship. Still, there doesn't seem to be anything that you can do. Facing your friend invariably leads to more ____4____ between you. Avoiding him just seems to ____5____ the gulf between you.

 

Instead of feeling ____6____ about your envy or hating your friend, you should take a different ____7___. Use your friend's success as a challenge. He has succeeded. This means that you can succeed as well. By thingking this way, you are ____8____ your feelings and redirecting them into a course of action that won't ruin your friendship.

 

Remember that friendships can ____9_____ friendly competitiion. You cannot, however, maintain your friendship if you ____10____ envy.

 

A) approach

B) goal

C) tension

D) harbor

E) remain

F) survive

G) harnessing

H) widen

I) overwhelm

J) overtake

K) establish

L) still

M) guilty

N) responsible

O) handicap

 

Part III. Reading Comprehension (40%)

Part A.

Directions: In this part there are three passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D.  Choose the one that you think is the correct answer.

 

1

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage:

 

A report consistently brought back by visitors to the US is how friendly, courteous and helpful most Americans were to them. To be fair, this observation is also frequently made of Canada and Canadians, and should best be considered North American. There are, of course, exceptions. Small-minded officials, rude waiters, and ill-mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment. For a long period of time and in many parts of the country, a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise dull existence.

 

Dullness and loneliness were common problems of the families who generally lived distant from one another. Strangers and travelers were welcome sources of diversion, and brought news of the outside world. The harsh realities of the frontier also shaped this tradition of hospitality.

 

Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement. It was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers. It reflected the harshness of daily life: if you didn’t take in the stranger and take care of him, there was no one else who would. And someday, remember, you might be in the same situation. Today there are many charitable organizations which specialize in helping the weary traveler. Yet, the old tradition of hospitality to strangers is still very strong in the US, especially in the smaller cities and towns away from the busy tourist trails. "I was just traveling through, got talking with this American, and pretty soon he invited me home for dinner—amazing." Such observations reported by visitors to the US are not uncommon, but are not always understood properly.

 

The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition. As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships. And, of course, speaking a language does not necessarily mean that someone understands social and cultural patterns. Visitors who fail to "translate" cultural meanings properly often draw wrong conclusions. For example, when an American uses the word "friend", the cultural implications of the word may be quite different from those it has in the visitor’s language and culture. It takes more than a brief encounter on a bus to distinguish between courteous convention and individual interest. Yet, being friendly is a virtue that many Americans value highly and expect from both neighbors and strangers.

1In the eyes of visitors from the outside world, ___________.

  A. rude taxi drivers are rarely seen in the US

  B) small-minded officials deserve a serious comment

  C) Canadians are not so friendly as their neighbors

  D. most Americans are ready to offer help

2It could be inferred from the last paragraph that ___________.

  A) culture exercises an influence over social interrelationship

  B) courteous convention and individual interest are interrelated

  C) various virtues manifest themselves exclusively among friends

  D) social interrelationships equal the complex set of cultural conventions

3Families in frontier settlements used to entertain strangers ___________.

  A) to improve their hard life

  B) in view of their long-distance travel

  C) to add some flavor to their own daily life

  D) out of a charitable impulse

4The tradition of hospitality to strangers ___________.

  A) tends to be superficial and artificial

  B) is generally well kept up in the united States

  C) is always understood properly

  D) has something to do with the busy tourist trails

5What’s the author’s attitudes toward the American’s friendliness?

  A) Favorable.

  B) Unfavorable.

  C) Indifferent.

  D) Neutral.

 

Part B

Directions: In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A-H to fit into each of the numbered gaps. There are three extra choices, which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10%)

From her vantage point she watched the main doors swing open and the first arrivals pour in. Those who had been at the head of the line paused momentarily on entry, looked around curiously, then quickly moved forward as others behind pressed in. Within moments the central public area of the big branch bank was filled with a chattering, noisy crowd. The building, relatively quiet less than a minute earlier, had become a Babel. Edwina saw a tall heavyset black man wave some dollar bills and declare loudly, "I want to put my money in the bank".

1.

 

It seemed as if the report about everyone having come to open an account had been accurate after all.

      Edwina could see the big man leaning back expansively, still holding his dollar bills. His voice cut across the noise of other conversations and she heard him proclaim, "I'm in no hurry. There's something I'd like you to explain."

Two other desks were quickly manned by other clerks. With equal speed, long wide lines of people formed in front of them.

Normally, three members of staff were ample to handle new account business, but obviously were inadequate now. Edwina could see Tottenhoe on the far side of the bank and called him on the intercom. She instructed, "Use more desks for new account and take all the staff you can spare to man them."

2.

 

     Tottenhoe grumbled in reply, "You realize we can't possibly process all these people today, and however many we do will tie us up completely."

"I' ve an idea," Edwina said, "that's what someone has in mind. Just hurry the processing all you can."    

3.

 

First, an application form called for details of residence, employment, social security, and family matters. A specimen signature was obtained. Then proof of identity was needed. After that, the new accounts clerk would take all documents to an officer of the bank for approval and initialing. Finally, a savings passbook was made out or a temporary checkbook issued.

     Therefore the most new accounts that any bank employee could open in an hour were five, so the three clerks presently working might handle a total of ninety in one business day, if they kept going at top speed, which was unlikely.

4.

 

Still the noise within the bank increased. It had become an uproar.

    A further problem was that the growing mass of arrivals in the central public area of the bank was preventing access to tellers' counters by other customers. Edwina could see a few of them outside, regarding the milling scene with consternation. While she watched, several gave up and walked away.

     Inside the bank some of the newcomers were engaging tellers in conversation and the tellers, having nothing else to do because of the melee, chatted back. Two assistant managers had gone to the central floor area and were trying to regulate the flood of people so as to clear some space at counters. They were having small success.

5.

 

She decided it was time for her own intervention.

    Edwina left the platform and a railed-off staff area and, with difficulty, made her way through the milling crowd to the main front door.

    

A. Yet she knew however much they hurried it would still take ten to fifteen minutes to open any single new account. It always did.

     The paperwork required that time.

    

     B. But still no hostility was evident. Everyone in the now jam-packed bank who was spoken to by members of the staff answered politely and with a smile. It seemed, Edwina thought, as if all who were here had been briefed to be on best behavior.

    

C. It's an interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location, title, and salary, then E-mails them when a matching position is posted in the database.

 

D. Even leaning close to the intercom, it was hard to hear above the noise.

    

E. Even tripling ate present complement of clerks would permit very few more than two hundred and fifty accounts (o be opened in a day, yet already, in the first few minutes of business, the bank was crammed with at least four hundred people, with still more flooding in, and the line outside, which Edwina rose to check, appeared as long as ever.

    

F. Obviously someone had alerted the press in advance, which explained the presence of the TV camera crew outside. Edwina wondered who had done it.

 

G. Some use them to keep a close watch on the demand for their line of work or gather information on compensation to arm themselves when negotiating for a raise.

 

H. A security guard directed him, "Over there for new accounts." The guard pointed to a desk where a clerk - a young girl - sat waiting. She appeared nervous. The big man walked toward her, smiled reassuringly, and sat down. Immediately a press of others moved into a ragged line behind him, waiting for their turn.

 

Part IV Translation (20%)

Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on the ANSWER SHEET.

 

     In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide acts rather like a one-way mirror the glass in the roof of a greenhouse which allows the sun’s rays to enter but prevents the heat from escaping.

According to a weather experts prediction, the atmosphere will be 3 warmer in the year 2050 than it is today, if man continues to burn fuels at the present rate. If this warming up took place, the ice caps in the poles would begin to melt, thus raising sea level several metres and severely flooding coastal cities. Also, the increase in atmospheric temperature would lead to great changes in the climate of the northern hemisphere, possibly resulting in an alteration of earth’s chief food-growing zones.

In the past, concern about a man-made warming of the earth has concentrated on the Arctic because the Antarctic is much colder and has a much thicker ice sheet. But the weather experts are now paying more attention to West Antarctic, which may be affected by only a few degrees of warming: in other words, by a warming on the scale that will possibly take place in the next fifty years from the burning of fuels.

Satellite pictures show that large areas of Antarctic ice are already disappearing. The evidence available suggests that a warming has taken place. This fits the theory that carbon dioxide warms the earth.

However, most of the fuel is burnt in the northern hemisphere, where temperatures seem to be falling. Scientists conclude, therefore, that up to now natural influences on the weather have exceeded those caused by man. The question is: Which natural cause has most effect on the weather?

One possibility is the variable behavior of the sun. Astronomers at one research station have studied the hot spots and “cold” spots (that is, the relatively less hot spots) on the sun. As the sun rotates, every 27.5 days, it presents hotter or “colder” faces to the earth, and different aspects to different parts of the earth. This seems to have a considerable effect on the distribution of the earth’s atmospheric pressure, and consequently on wind circulation. The sun is also variable over a long term: its heat output goes up and down in cycles, the latest trend being downward.

Scientists are now finding mutual relations between models of solar-weather interactions and the actual climate over many thousands of years, including the last Ice Age. The problem is that the models are predicting that the world should be entering a new Ice Age and it is not. One way of solving this theoretical difficulty is to assume a delay of thousands of years while the solar effects overcome the inertia (惯性) of the earth's climate. If this is right, the warming effect of carbon dioxide might thus be serving as a useful counter-balance to the sun’s diminishing heat.

                                         

Part V.  Writing (20%)

Directions: People are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of health. And they have different ways to stay healthy.  Some exercise everyday; others try to keep a balanced diet; still others try to keep happy all the time. What do you think is the best way to stay healthy?

 

Write an essay of about 200 words about the following topic:

 

The Best Way to Stay Healthy

You are to write in three paragraphs:

1.       The importance of health

2.       Different people have different ideas about staying healthy

 

3.       What you think is the best way to stay healthy

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