睿普教育考博英语
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2015年中科院考博英语考试大纲

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考试对象
报考中国科学院大学各单位(具体指中国科学院所属各研究院、所、中心、园、台、站及校部各直属院系)相关专业拟攻读博士学位的考生。
考试目的
检验考生是否具有进入攻读博士学位阶段的英语水平和能力。
考试类型、考试内容及考试结构
本考试共有五个部分:词汇(占10%)、完形填空(占15%)、阅读理解(占40%)、英译汉(占15%),写作(占20%)。试卷分为:试卷一(Paper One)客观试题,包括前三个部分,共75题,顺序排号;试卷二(Paper Two)主观试题,包括英译汉和写作两个部分。
 
一、词汇
主要测试考生是否具备一定的词汇量和根据上下文对词和词组意义判断的能力。词和词组的测试范围基本以本考试大纲词汇表为参照依据。共20题。每题为一个留有空白的英文句子。要求考生从所给的四个选项中选出可用在句中的最恰当词或词组。
 
二、完形填空
主要测试考生在语篇层次上的理解能力以及对词汇表达方式和结构掌握的程度。考生应具有借助于词汇、句法及上下文线索对语言进行综合分析和应用的能力。要求考生就所给篇章中15处空白所需的词或短语分别从四个选项中选出最佳答案。
 
三、阅读理解
本部分共分两节。要求考生能:
1)掌握中心思想、主要内容和具体细节;
2)进行相关的判断和推理;
3)准确把握某些词和词组在上下文中的特定含义;
4)领会作者观点和意图、判断作者的态度。
A节:主要测试考生在规定时间内通过阅读获取相关信息的能力。考生须完成1800-2000词的阅读量并就题目从四个选项中选出最佳答案。
B节:主要测试考生对诸如连贯性和一致性等语段特征的理解。考生须完成700-900词的阅读量(2篇短文),并根据每篇文章(约400词)的内容,从文后所提供的6段文字中选择能分别放进文章中5个空白处的5段。
 
四、英译汉
要求考生将一篇近400词的英语短文中有下划线的5个句子翻译成汉语。主要测试考生是否能从语篇的角度正确理解英语原句的意思,并能用准确、达意的汉语书面表达出来。
 
五、写作
要求考生按照命题、所给提纲或背景图、表写出一篇不少于200字的短文。目的是测试考生用英语表达思想或传递信息的能力及对英文写作基础知识的实际运用。
 
考试时间及计分
考试时间总计为180分钟,其中试卷一为110分钟,试卷二为70分钟。卷面总分100分。详见下表:
 
试卷一:
题号
名称
题量
分值
时间(分钟)
I
词汇选择填空
20
10
15
II
完形填空
15
15
15
III-A
阅读理解(A)
30
30
60
III-B
阅读理解(B)
10
10
20
小计
 
75
65
110分钟
 
试卷二:
题号
名称
题量
分值
时间(分钟)
IV
英译汉–语篇中句子
5
15
30
V
写作
1
20
40
小计
 
6
35
70分钟
 
 

SAMPLE TEST
UNIVERSITY OF CHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
ENGLISH ENTRANCE EXAMINATION
FOR
DOCTORAL CANDIDATES
 
PAPER ONE
      
PART I  VOCABULARY (15 minutes, 10 points, 0.5 point each)
DirectionsChoose the word or expression below each sentence that best completes the statement, and mark the corresponding letter of your choice with a single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.
 
1. Ten years ago, a house with a decent bathroom was a __________ symbol among university professors.
A. post                   B. status
C. position                      D. place
 
2. It would be far better if collectors could be persuaded to spend their time and money in support of ___________ archaeological research.
A. legible                                   B. legitimate
C. legislative                       D. illicit
 
3. We seek a society that has at its __________ a respect for the dignity and worth of the individual.
A. end                                 B. hand
C. core                                D. best 
 
4. A variety of problems have greatly _________the country’s normal educational development.
   A. impeded                          B. imparted
   C. implored                          D. implemented
 
5. A good education is an asset you can ________for the rest of your life.
   A. spell out                          B. call upon
   C. fall over                           D. resort to
 
6. Oil can change a society more ____________ than anyone could ever have imagined.
A. grossly                                   B. severely
C. rapidly                            D. drastically 
 
7. Beneath its myriad rules, the fundamental purpose of ___________ is to make the world a pleasanter place to live in, and you a more pleasant person to live with.
A. elitism                             B. eloquence   
C. eminence                       D. etiquette
 
8. The New Testament was not only written in the Greek language, but ideas derived from Greek philosophy were _____________ in many parts of it.
A. altered                            B. criticized
C. incorporated                           D. translated
 
9. Nobody will ever know the agony I go __________ waiting for him to come home.
A. over                               B. with
C. down                              D. through
 
10. While a country’s economy is becoming the most promising in the world, its people should be more ____________ about their quality of life.
   A. discriminating                 B. distributing
   C. disagreeing                      D. disclosing
 
11. Cheated by two boys whom he had trust on, Joseph promised to ____________ them.
A. find fault with                 B. make the most of
C. look down upon              D. get even with
 
12. The Minister’s _________ answer let to an outcry from the Opposition.
       A. impressive                      B. evasive
       C. intensive                        D. exhaustive
 
13. In proportion as the ____________ between classes within the nation disappears the hostility of one nation to another will come to an end.
A. intolerance               B. pessimism
C. injustice                          D. antagonism
 
14. Everyone does their own thing, to the point where a fifth-grade teacher can’t __________ on a fourth-grade teacher having taught certain things.
A. count                              B. insist
C. fall                                  D. dwell
 
15. When the fire broke out in the building, the people lost their __________ and ran into the elevator.
A. hearts                             B. tempers
C. heads                              D. senses
 
16. Consumers deprived of the information and advice they needed were quite simply ___________ every cheat in the marketplace.
A. at the mercy of                B. in lieu of
C. by courtesy of                 D. for the price of
 
17. In fact the purchasing power of a single person’s pension in Hong Kong was only 70 per cent of the value of the _________ Singapore pension.
A. equivalent                       B. similar     
C. consistent                       D. identical
 
18. He became aware that he had lost his audience since he had not been able to talk ____________.
A. honestly                          B. graciously   
C. coherently                    D. flexibly
 
19. The novel, which is a work of art, exists not by its _____________ life, but by its immeasurable difference from life.
A. significance in                B. imagination at
C. resemblance to                D. predominance over
 
20. She was artful and could always ____________ her parents in the end.
A. shout down                            B. get round    
C. comply with                        D. pass over
 
PART II CLOZE TEST    (15 minutes, 15 points)
 
Directions: For each blank in the following passage, choose the best answer from the four choices given in the opposite column. Mark the corresponding letter of your choice with a single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.
 
We are entering a period in which rapid population growth, the presence of deadly weapons, and dwindling resources will bring international tensions to dangerous levels for an extended period. Indeed,  21  seems no reason for these levels of danger to subside unless population equilibrium is 22  and some rough measure of fairness reached in the distribution of wealth among nations.  23  of adequate magnitude imply a willingness to redistribute income internationally on a more generous  24 than the advanced nations have evidenced within their own  domains. The required increases in  25 in the backward regions would  necessitate gigantic applications of energy merely to extract the 26  resources.
It is uncertain whether the requisite energy-producing technology exists, and more serious,  27 that its application would bring us to the threshold of an irreversible change in climate   28  aconsequence of the enormous addition of manmade heat to the atmosphere. It is this  29  problem that poses the most demanding and difficult of the challenges. The existing  30  of industrial growth, with no allowance for increased industrialization to repair global poverty, hold  31   the risk of entering the danger zone of climatic change in as  32  as three or four generations. If the trajectory is in fact pursued, industrial growth will   33   have to come to an immediate halt, for another generation or two along that  34  would literally consume human, perhaps all life. The terrifying outcome can be postponed only to the extent that the wastage of heat can be reduced,  35 that technologies that do not add to the atmospheric heat burden—for example, the use of solar energy—can be utilized. (1996)
 
21. A. one             B. it                     C. this             D. there
22. A. achieved    B. succeeded               C. produced          D. executed
23. A. Transfers   B. Transactions    C. Transports      D. Transcripts
24. A. extent       B. scale                C. measure        D. range
25. A. outgrowth  B. outcrop           C. output          D. outcome
26. A. needed        B. needy             C. needless         D. needing
27. A. possible   B. possibly           C. probable         D. probably
28. A. in               B. with                C. as                D. to
29. A. least           B. late                 C. latest           D. last
30. A. race            B. pace                C. face             D. lace
31. A. on                B. up                  C. down          D. out
32. A. less             B. fewer                      C. many          D. little
33. A. rather         B. hardly             C. then                   D. yet
34. A. line            B. move               C. drive           D. track
35. A. if                B. or                     C. while          D. as
 
PART III     READING COMPREHENSION    
Section A  (60 minutes, 30 points)
DirectionsBelow each of the following passages you will find some questions or incomplete statements. Each question or statement is followed by four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Read each passage carefully, and then select the choice that best answers the question or completes the statement. Mark the letter of your choice with a single bar across the square brackets on your Machine-scoring Answer Sheet.
 
Passage 1
The writing of a historical synthesis involves integrating the materials available to the historian into a comprehensible whole. The problem in writing a historical synthesis is how to find a pattern in, or impose a pattern upon, the detailed information that has already been used to explain the causes for a historical event.
    A synthesis seeks common elements in which to interpret the contingent parts of a historical event. The initial step, therefore, in writing a historical synthesis, is to put the event to be synthesized in a proper historical perspective, so that the common elements or strands making up the event can be determined. This can be accomplished by analyzing the historical event as part of a general trend or continuum in history. The common elements that are familiar to the event will become the ideological framework in which the historian seeks to synthesize. This is not to say that any factor will not have a greater relative value in the historian’s handling of the interrelated when viewed in a broad historical perspective.
The historian, in synthesizing, must determine the extent to which the existing hypotheses have similar trends. A general trend line, once established, will enable these similar trends to be correlated and paralleled within the conceptual framework of a common base. A synthesis further seeks to determine, from existing hypotheses, why an outcome took the direction it did; thus, it necessitates reconstructing the spirit of the times in order to assimilate the political, social, psychological, etc., factors within a common base.
As such, the synthesis becomes the logical construct in interpreting the common ground between an original explanation of an outcome (thesis) and the reinterpretation of the outcome along different lines (antithesis). Therefore, the synthesis necessitates the integration of the materials available into a comprehensible whole which will in turn provide a new historical perspective for the event being synthesized.  
 
36. The author would mostly be concerned with _____________.
A. finding the most important cause for a particular historical event
B. determining when hypotheses need to be reinterpreted
C. imposing a pattern upon varying interpretations for the causes of a particular historical event
D. attributing many conditions that together lead to a particular historical event or to single motive
 
37. The most important preliminary step in writing a historical synthesis would be ____________.
A. to accumulate sufficient reference material to explain an event
B. analyzing the historical event to determine if a “single theme theory” apples to the event
C. determining the common strands that make up a historical event
D. interpreting historical factors to determine if one factor will have relatively greater value
 
38. The best definition for the term “historical synthesis” would be ______________.
A. combining elements of different material into a unified whole
B. a tentative theory set forth as an explanation for an event
C. the direct opposite of the original interpretation of an event
D. interpreting historical material to prove that history repeats itself
 
39. A historian seeks to reconstruct the “spirit” of a time period because ____________.
A. the events in history are more important than the people who make history
B. existing hypotheses are adequate in explaining historical events
C. this is the best method to determine the single most important cause for a particular action
D. varying factors can be assimilated within a common base
 
40. Which of the following statements would the author consider false?
A. One factor in a historical synthesis will not have a greater value than other factors.
B. It is possible to analyze common unifying points in hypotheses.
C. Historical events should be studied as part of a continuum in history.
D. A synthesis seeks to determine why an outcome took the direction it did.
 
Passage 2
When you call the police, the police dispatcher has to locate the car nearest you that is free to respond. This means the dispatcher has to keep track of the status and location of every police car—not an easy task for a large department.
    Another problem, which arises when cars are assigned to regular patrols, is that the patrols may be too regular. If criminals find out that police cars will pass a particular location at regular intervals, they simply plan their crimes for times when no patrol is expected. Therefore, patrol cars should pass by any particular location at random times; the fact that a car just passed should be no guarantee that another one is not just around the corner. Yet simply ordering the officers to patrol at random would lead to chaos.
A computer dispatching system can solve both these problems. The computer has no trouble keeping track of the status and location of each car. With this information, it can determine instantly which car should respond to an incoming call. And with the aid of a pseudorandom number generator, the computer can assign routine patrols so that criminals can’t predict just when a police car will pass through a particular area.
(Before computers, police sometimes used roulette wheels and similar devices to make random assignments.)
Computers also can relieve police officers from constantly having to report their status. The police car would contain a special automatic radio transmitter and receiver. The officer would set a dial on this unit indicating the current status of the car—patrolling, directing traffic, chasing a speeder, answering a call, out to lunch, and so on. When necessary, the computer at headquarters could poll the car for its status. The voice radio channels would not be clogged with cars constantly reporting what they were doing. A computer in the car automatically could determine the location of the car, perhaps using the LORAN method. The location of the car also would be sent automatically to the headquarters computer.
 
41. The best title for this passage should be ___________.
A. Computers and Crimes
B. Patrol Car Dispatching
C. The Powerful Computers
D. The Police with Modern Equipment
 
42. A police dispatcher is NOT supposed to _____________.
A. locate every patrol car
B. guarantee cars on regular patrols
C. keep in touch with each police car
D. find out which car should respond to the incoming call
 
43. If the patrols are too regular, _____________.
A. the dispatchers will be bored with it
B. the officers may become careless 
C. the criminals may take advantage of it
D. the streets will be in a state of chaos
 
44. The computer dispatching system is particularly good at ______________.
A. assigning cars to regular patrols
B. responding to the incoming calls         
C. ordering officers to report their location
D. making routine patrols unpredictable
 
45. According to the account in the last paragraph, how can a patrol car be located without computers?
A. Police officers report their status constantly.
B. The headquarters poll the car for its status.
C. A radio transmitter and receiver is installed in a car.
D. A dial in the car indicates its current status.
 
Passage 3
A child who has once been pleased with a tale likes, as a rule, to have it retold in identically the same words, but this should not lead parents to treat printed fairy stories as sacred texts. It is always much better to tell a story than read it out of a book, and, if a parent can produce what, in the actual circumstances of the time and the individual child, is an improvement on the printed text, so much the better.
A charge made against fairy tales is that they harm the child by frightening him or arousing his sadistic impulse. To prove the latter, one would have to show in a controlled experiment that children who have read fairy stories were more often guilty of cruelty than those who had not. Aggressive, destructive, sadistic impulses every child has and, on the whole, their symbolic verbal discharge seem to be rather a safety valve than an incitement to overt action. As to fears, there are, I think, well-authenticated cases of children being dangerously terrified by some fairy story. Often, however, this arises from the child having heard the story once. Familiarity with the story by repetition turns the pain of fear into the pleasure of a fear faced and mastered.                                    
There are also people who object to fairy stories on the grounds that they are not objectively true, that giants, witches, two-headed dragons, magic carpets, etc., do not exist; and that, instead of indulging his fantasies in fairy tales, the child should be taught how to adapt to reality by studying history and mechanics. I find such people, I must confess, so unsympathetic and peculiar that I do not know how to argue with them. If their case were sound, the world should be full of madmen attempting to fly from New York to Philadelphia on a broomstick or covering a telephone with kisses in the belief that it was their enchanted girl-friend.
No fairy story ever claimed to be a description of the external world and no sane child has ever believed that it was.
        
46. According to the author, the best way to retell a story to a child is to ______________.
A. tell it in a creative way            
B. take from it what the child likes
C. add to it whatever at hand
D. read it out of the story book.
        
47. In the second paragraph, which statement best expresses the author’s attitude towards fairy stories?
A. He sees in them the worst of human nature.
B. He dislikes everything about them.
C. He regards them as more of a benefit than harms.
D. He is expectant of the experimental results.
        
48. According to the author, fairy stories are most likely to ____________.
A. make children aggressive the whole life
B. incite destructiveness in children
C. function as a safety valve for children
D. add children’s enjoyment of cruelty to others
        
49. If the child has heard some horror story for more than once, according to the author, he would probably be ______________.           
A. scared to death
B. taking it and even enjoying it
C. suffering more the pain of fear
D. dangerously terrified
                  
50. The author’s mention of broomsticks and telephones is meant to emphasize that ___________.
A. old fairy stories keep updating themselves to cater for modern needs
B. fairy stories have claimed many lives of victims
C. fairy stories have thrown our world into chaos
D. fairy stories are after all fairy stories
 
Passage 4
There has been a lot of hand-wringing over the death of Elizabeth SteinbergWithout blaming anyone in particular, neighbors, friends, social workers, the police and newspaper editors have struggled to define the community’s responsibility to Elizabeth and to other battered children. As the collective soul-searching continues, there is a pervading sense that the system failed her.
The fact is, in New York State the system couldn’t have saved her. It is almost impossible to protect a child from violent parents, especially if they are white, middle-class, well-educated and represented by counsel.
Why does the state permit violence against children? There are a number of reasons. First, parental privilege is a rationalization. In the past, the law was giving its approval to the biblical injunction against sparing the rod.
Second, while everyone agrees that the state must act to remove children from their homes when there is danger of serious physical or emotional harm, many child advocates believe that state intervention in the absence of serious injury is more harmful than helpful.
Third, courts and legislatures tread carefully when their actions intrude or threaten to intrude on a relationship protected by the Constitution. In 1923, the Supreme Court recognized the “liberty of parent and guardian to direct the upbringing and education of children under their control.” More recently, in 1977, it upheld the teacher’s privilege to use corporal punishment against schoolchildren. Read together, these decisions give the constitutional imprimatur to parental use of physical force.
Under the best conditions, small children depend utterly on their parents for survival. Under the worst, their dependency dooms them. While it is questionable whether anyone or anything could have saved Elizabeth Steinberg, it is plain that the law provided no protection.
To the contrary, by justifying the use of physical force against children as an acceptable method of education and control, the law lent a measure of plausibility and legitimacy to her parents’ conduct.
More than 80 years ago, in the teeth of parental resistance and Supreme Court doctrine, the New York State Legislature acted to eliminate child labor law. Now, the state must act to eliminate child abuse by banning corporal punishment. To break the cycle of violence, nothing less will answer. If there is a lesson to be drawn from the death of Elizabeth Steinberg, it is this: spare the rod and spare the child.  
 
51. The New York State law seems to provide least protection of a child from violent parents of ____________.
A. a family on welfare               
B. a poor uneducated family
C. an educated black family              
D. a middle-class white family
 
52. “Sparing the rod” (in boldface) means ____________.
A. spoiling children                     
B. punishing children
C. not caring about children              
D. not beating children
 
53. Corporal punishment against schoolchildren is _____________.
A. taken as illegal in the New York State  
B. considered being in the teacher’s province 
C. officially approved by law
D. disapproved by school teachers  
 
54. From the article we can infer that Elizabeth Steinberg is probably the victim of ____________.
A. teachers’ corporal punishment           
B. misjudgment of the court
C. parents’ ill-treatment                  
D. street violence
 
55. The writer of this article thinks that banning corporal punishment will in the long run _____________.
A. prevent violence of adults
B. save more children
C. protect children from ill-treatment              
D. better the system
 
Passage 5
With its common interest in lawbreaking but its immense range of subject-matter and widely-varying methods of treatment, the crime novel could make a legitimate claim to be regarded as a separate branch of literature, or, at least, as a distinct, even though a slightly disreputable, offshoot of the traditional novel.
The detective story is probably the most respectable (at any rate in the narrow sense of the word) of the crime species. Its creation is often the relaxation of university scholars, literary economists, scientists or even poets. Disastrous deaths may occur more frequently and mysteriously than might be expected in polite society, but the world in which they happen, the village, seaside resort, college or studio, is familiar to us, if not from our own experience, at least in the newspaper or the lives of friends. The characters, though normally realized superficially, are as recognizably human and consistent as our less intimate acquaintances. A story set in a more remote African jungle or Australian bush, ancient China or gas-lit London, appeals to our interest in geography or history, and most detective story writers are conscientious in providing a reasonably true background. The elaborate, carefully-assembled plot, despised by the modern intellectual critics and creators of “significant” novels, has found refuge in the murder mystery, with its sprinkling of clues, its spicing with apparent impossibilities, all with appropriate solutions and explanations at the end. With the guilt of escapism from real life nagging gently, we secretly take delight in the unmasking of evil by a vaguely super-human detective, who sees through and dispels the cloud of suspicion which has hovered so unjustly over the innocent.
Though its villain also receives his rightful deserts, the thriller presents a less comfortable and credible world. The sequence of fist fights, revolver duels, car crashes and escapes from gas-filled cellars exhausts the reader far more than the hero, who, suffering from at least two broken ribs, one black eye, uncountable bruises and a hangover, can still chase and overpower an armed villain with the physique of a wrestler, He moves dangerously through a world of ruthless gangs, brutality, a vicious lust for power and money and, in contrast to the detective tale, with a near-omniscient arch-criminal whose defeat seems almost accidental. Perhaps we miss in the thriller the security of being safely led by our imperturbable investigator past a score of red herrings and blind avenues to a final gathering of suspects when an unchallengeable elucidation of all that has bewildered us is given and justice and goodness prevail. All that we vainly hope for from life is granted vicariously.
 
56. The crime novel is regarded by the author as _________________.
A. a not respectable form of the traditional novel
B. not a true novel at all
C. related in some ways to the historical novel
D. a distinct branch of the traditional novel
 
57. The creation of detective stories has its origin in _______________.
A. seeking rest from work or worries
B. solving mysterious deaths in this society
C. restoring expectations in polite society
D. preventing crimes
 
58. The characters of the detective stories are, generally speaking, _____________.
A. more profound than those of the traditional novels
B. as real as life itself
C. not like human beings at all
D. not very profound but not unlikely
 
59. The setting of the detective stories is sometimes in a more remote place because ___________.
A. it is more real
B. our friends are familiar with it
C. it pleases the readers in a way
D. it needs the readers’ support
 
60. The writer of this passage thinks _____________.
A. what people hope for from life can finally be granted if they have confidence
B. people like to feel that justice and goodness will always triumph
C. they know in the real world good does not prevail over evil
D. their hopes in life can only be fulfilled through fiction reading
 
Passage 6
Whenever we are involved in a creative type of activity that is self-rewarding, a feeling overcomes us—a feeling that we can call “flow.” When we are flowing we lose all sense of time and awareness of what is happening around us; instead, we feel that everything is going just right.
A rock dancer describes his feeling of flow like this: “If I have enough space, I feel I can radiate an energy into the atmosphere. I can dance for walls, I dance for floors. I become one with the atmosphere.” “You are in an ecstatic state to such a point that you don’t exist,” says a composer, describing how he feels when he “flows.” Players of any sport throughout the world are familiar with the feeling of flow; they enjoy their activity very much, even though they can expect little extrinsic reward. The same holds true for surgeons, cave explorers, and mountain climbers.
Flow provides a sort of physical sensation along with an altered state of being. One man put it this way: “Your body feels good and awake all over. Your energy is flowing.” People who flow feel part of this energy; that is, they are so involved in what they are doing that they do not think of themselves as being separate from their activity. They are flowing along with their enjoyment. Moreover, they concentrate intensely on their activity. They do not try to concentrate harder, however; the concentration comes automatically. A chess player compares this concentration to breathing. As they concentrate, these people feel immersed in the action, lost in the action. Their sense of time is altered and they skip meals and sleep without noticing their loss. Sizes and spaces also seem altered: successful baseball players see and hit the ball so much better because it seems larger to them. They can even distinguish the seams on a ball approaching them at 165 kilometers per hour.
It seems then that flow is a “floating action” in which the individual is aware of his actions but not aware of his awareness. A good reader is so absorbed in his book that he knows he is turning the pages to go on reading, but he does not notice he is turning these pages. The moment people think about it, flow is destroyed, so they never ask themselves questions such as “Am I doing well?” or “Did everyone see my jump?”
Finally, to flow successfully depends a great deal on the activity itself; not too difficult to produce anxiety, not too easy to bring about boredom; challenging, interesting, fun. Some good examples of flow activities are games and sports, reading, learning, working on what you enjoy, and even day-dreaming.
 
61. What is the main purpose of the article?
A. to illustrate the feeling of “flow”
B. to analyze the causes of a special feeling
C. to define the new psychological term “flow”
D. to lead people to acquire the feeling of “flow”
 
62. In this article, “flow” refers to a feeling which probably results from _____________.
A. awareness               
B. ecstasy
C. unconsciousness             
D. self-rewarding
 
63. The word “immersed” (in boldface) is closest in meaning to _____________.
A. occupied                 
B. engrossed
C. soaked              
D. committed
 
64. What does one usually act while “flowing” in reading?
A. thinks what he is doing
B. wonders how fast he can read
C. turns the pages
D. minds the page number
 
65. The activity which can successfully bring about “flow” is most probably ____________.
A. gripping                  
B. difficult
C. boring                     
D. easy
 
Section B ( 20 minutes, 10 points)
Direction: In each of the following passages, five sentences have been removed from the original text. They are listed from A to F and put below the passage. Choose the most suitable sentence from the list to fill in each of the blanks (numbered 66 to 75). For each passage, there is one sentence that does not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on your machine scoring Answer Sheet.
Passage 1
A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. --- 66 --- America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed.
It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. By the mid-1980s Americans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness. --- 67 --- By 1987 there was only one American television maker left, Zenith. (Now there is none: Zenith was bought by South Korea's LG Electronics in July.) Foreign-made cars and textiles were sweeping into the domestic market.America's machine tool industry was on the ropes. --- 68 ---
All of this caused a crisis of confidence. Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted. They began to believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that their incomes would therefore shortly begin to fall as well. --- 69 ---Their sometimes-sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from overseas.
--- 70 ---In 1995 the United States can look back on five years of solid growth while Japan has been struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle. Self-doubt has yielded to blind pride." American industry has changed its structure, has gone on a diet, has learnt to be more quick-witted," according to Richard Cavanagh, executive dean of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.  “It makes me proud to be an American just to see how our businesses are improving their productivity,” says Stephen Moore of the Cato Institute, a think-tank in Washington, DC. And William Sahlman of the Harvard BusinessSchool believes that people will look back on this period as" a golden age of business management in the United States."
 
A.    For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors, which America had invested and which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty. 
B.     Its scientists were the world's best, its workers the most skilled. 
C.     How things have changed!
D.    The mid-1980s brought one inquiry after another into the causes of America's industrial decline. 
E.     Some huge American industries, such as consumer electronics, had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition.
F.     Some of the nation's largest businesses shrink in size when they appear on the government's database of federal contractors. 
 
Passage 2
   If sustainable competitive advantage depends on work force skills, American firms have a problem. ---71--- Skill acquisition is considered an individual responsibility. Labor is simply another factor of production to be hired-rented at the lowest possible cost-much as one buys raw materials or equipment. 

  The lack of importance attached to human resource management can be seen in the corporate hierarchy. In an American firm the chief financial officer is almost always second in command. ---72--- The executive who holds it is never consulted on major strategic decisions and has no chance to move up to Chief Executive Officer (CEO). By way of contrast, in Japan the head of human resource management is central-usually the second most important executive, after the CEO, in the firm's hierarchy. 

  While American firms often talk about the vast amounts spent on training their work forces, in fact they invest less in the skills of their employees than do either Japanese or German firms. ---73---And the limited investments that are made in training workers are also much more narrowly focused on the specific skills necessary to do the next job rather than on the basic background skills that make it possible to absorb new technologies. 

  As a result, problems emerge when new breakthrough technologies arrive. ---74---More time is required before equipment is up and running at capacity, and the need for extensive retraining generates costs and creates bottlenecks that limit the speed with which new equipment can be employed. ---75--- And in the end the skills of the population affect the wages of the top half. If the bottom half can't effectively staff the processes that have to be operated, the management and professional jobs that go with these processes will disappear.
 
A. If American workers for example, take much longer to learn how to operate new flexible manufacturing stations than workers in Germany (as they do), the effective cost of those stations is lower in Germany than it is in the United Stated. 
B. The head of human resource management is one of the most important executives in the firm.
C. The money they do invest is also more highly concentrated on professional and managerial employees.
D. Human resource management is not traditionally seen as central to the competitive survival of the firm in the United States.
E. The post of head of human resource management is usually a specialized job, off at the edge of the corporate hierarchy.
F. The result is a slower pace of technological change.
 
 
PAPER TWO
 
PART V TRANSLATION  (30 minutes, 15 points)
 
Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Write your pieces of Chinese version in the proper space on your Answer Sheet II.
 
There is no greater power in the world today than that wielded by the manipulators of public opinion in America. (1) No king or pope of old, no conquering general or high priest ever disposed of a power even remotely approaching that of the few dozen men who control America’s mass news and entertainment media.
 (2)Their power is not distant and impersonal; it reaches into every home in America, and it works its will during nearly every waking hour. It is the power which shapes and molds the mind of virtually every citizen, young or old, rich or poor, simple or sophisticated.
The mass media form for us our image of the world and then tell us what to think about that image. (3)Essentially everything we know—or think we know—about events outside our own neighborhood or circle of acquaintances comes to us via our daily newspaper, our weekly news magazine, our radio, or our television.
It is not just the heavy-handed suppression of certain news stories from our newspapers or the blatant propagandizing of history-distorting TV “docudramas” which characterizes the opinion-manipulating techniques of the media masters. They exercise both subtlety and thoroughness in their management of both the news and the entertainment which they present to us.
For example, the way in which the news is covered: (4)which items are emphasized and which are played down, the reporter’s choice of words, tone of voice, and facial expressions; the wording of headlines; the choice of illustrations—all of these things subliminally(浅意识地)and yet profoundly affect the way in which we interpret what we see or hear.
On top of this, of course, the columnists and editors remove any remaining doubt from our minds as to just what we are to think about it all. (5)Employing carefully developed psychological techniques, they guide our thought and opinion so that we can be in tune with the “in” crowd, the “beautiful people,” the “smart money.” They let us know exactly what our attitudes should be toward various types of people and behavior by placing those people or that behavior in the context of a TV drama or situation comedy and having the other TV characters react to them in the Politically Correct way.
 
PART VI       WRITING (40 minutes, 20 points)
 
DirectionsWrite an essay of no less than 200 words on the topic given below. Use the proper space on your Answer Sheet II.
 
Topic
Anything that is overdone may bring unwanted results. Addiction to the Internet is of no exception. Discuss the harmful effects on a person’s life when he/she is indulged in the Internet.
 

 
KEY
 
PART I   VOCABULARY
1. B     2. B           3. C    4. A     5. B     6. D     7. D    8. C    9. D  10. A    11. D       12. B
13. D   14. A         15. C    16. A   17. A    18. C   19. C         20. B
 
PART II  CLOZE TEST
21. D      22. A      23. A      24. B      25. D      26. A      27. B   28. C   29. D         30. B  31. D   
32.C           33. C      34. A   35. B      
 
PART III   READING COMPREHENSION
Section A
36. C      37. C   38. B          39. D    40. A    41. B   62. B    43. C   44. D  45. A    46. A  47. C
48. C      49. B   50. D   51. D    52. D   53. B        54. C    55. A    56. D  57. A    58. D 59. C 60. B     61. A      62. D      63. B      64. C  65. A
Section B
66. B    67. E   68. A    69. D    70. C
71. D    72. E   73. C    74. A    75. F
PART IV  
 
PART V    TRANSLATION
Suggested Chinese version for the 5 English Segments:
(1)过去的国王、教皇、征战他国的大将军或者基督教会的长老所行使的权力远远无法与当今那几十个控制着美国大众新闻、娱乐媒体的人手中的权力相比拟。
 
(2)他们的权力之手伸得很近,伸及到每一个人,伸及到美国的每一个家庭。人们除了睡眠之外,几乎无时无刻不在受着这个权力意志的影响。
(3)从根本上说,我们所了解的(或者说我们认为我们所了解的)一切有关我们居住地或者熟人圈之外发生的事件的信息,都是通过我们的新闻日报、周刊、广播或者电视而获得的。
(4)哪些是重点强调的、哪些是刻意低调报道的;报道者所用的字汇、语调;他(她)的面部表情;标题的用语、图片的选择;所有这一切,都不知不觉地但却根深蒂固地影响着我们对所见所闻的理解和解释。
(5)他们精心地运用现代心理技术引导我们的思想和看法,使我们与他们所宣扬的一些观点如:“时尚大众”、“美丽的人”、“聪明财富”相一致。
 
PART VI WRITING (40 minutes, 20 points)
(略)
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